2 Microcomputer Numerical Control System This machine adopts an open-loop economical control system that controls X-axis and Z-axis to realize two-axis linkage, and can complete linear interpolation of two coordinates. It is mainly composed of a microcomputer, a stepping motor drive power supply, a stepping motor, a multi-function NC interface board, and a control circuit (Fig. 1). The computer can use any PC and compatible computer above IBM PC-286, insert the CNC card in its bus slot, and use the developed CNC software package to pass the workpiece processing program through the keyboard keys and store it in the power-off protection function. In the workpiece program memory, to improve the reliability of the system operation, complete the workpiece CNC machining. The stepping motor drive power adopts pulse width-adjusting circuit and smooth subdividing circuit to greatly increase the joy torque of the stepping motor at high frequency, improve the system's rapid performance, and at the same time reduce the vibration of the stepping motor at low frequency, and make the operation more stable. In addition, it also has protection functions such as over-temperature, over-voltage, over-current and under-voltage. In the system, photoelectric scrambler is also used for isolation to improve the system's anti-interference. 3 The machine body of the machine tool body CK6130 CNC lathe is improved from the small ordinary lathe C615, mainly including the transformation of the feed transmission system, the transformation of the main transmission system and the transformation of the tool holder structure.
Figure 1 Overall plan of CNC machine control system
The transformation of the feed system to the Z-axis (longitudinal) feed system is shown in Fig. 2. The feed box, carriage box, light bar, and screw of the original machine are dismantled, and the stepping motor is arranged on the left end of the original screw. A reduction gear box is installed in the mounting hole and pin hole of the machine tool feed box. The stepping motor uses one-stage gear reduction and the transmission gear uses double-bladed gears to eliminate gaps. Replace the original lead screw with the ball screw at the original screw position. The ball screw adopts the pre-tightening installation method to reduce or eliminate the bending deformation caused by the dead weight of the screw, which greatly improves the tension and compression stiffness of the screw. During operation, the stepping motor is connected with the reduction box through a gapless coupling, and the drag torque is transmitted to the ball screw pair to drive the large carriage to reciprocate longitudinally. The X-axis (horizontal) feed system mounts the stepper motor on a large carriage and drives the ball screw through a gear reduction. The transformation of the main transmission system is installed in the rear end of the spindle photoelectric encoder, the use of electromagnetic clutch and slip gear combination, the C615 lathe manual grading transmission is transformed into automatic graded transmission, so that it has a convenient operation and simple structure, while using Two-speed motor to further increase the number of shift stages.
Fig. 2 Transformation of 2-axis feed system
The transformation of the tool post structure adopts a 4-manual electric tool rest to replace the ordinary manual indexing tool post of the original C615 lathe, and is controlled by a numerical control system. When the tool post receives the signal sent by the microcomputer, during the execution process, each indexing and tool change of the tool post returns the signal of the current tool position from the Hall element circuit on the tool post to the micro computer. Judgment, when the current tool position meets the requirements of the microcomputer, the computer is sent back to the signal that the tool rest is locked and executed (Figure 3). 4 Features of the lathe The CNC system of the machine tool adopts a general-purpose PC machine. The machine body adopts an ordinary C615 lathe, and the programming adopts a color full-screen display and human-machine dialogue. The machine tool can complete online programming of CNC machining, program inspection, grammar correction, graphic display, simulation processing, automatic setting of operation parameters, and control of the entire automatic processing of the machine tool. It has the functions of machining complex shapes such as cylinders, cones, arcs, end faces, forming faces, threads, and combination faces. The CNC software package is an open type, reserved for interfaces, scalable functions and software upgrades, and has the outstanding features of low-cost automation.
Figure 3 tool holder workflow diagram
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